The Newcomer Students’ Association – a national grassroots organization working at the intersection of migration, education and social justice, and a platform committed to promoting equity and inclusion for Canadian post-secondary students – we express our solidarity with members of the Asian community who have experienced incidents of hate, discrimination and racism. Our hearts are angered and grieved by the recent tragic killings in Atlanta; and we send a message of support and love to bereaved families of the victims, and to all members of the Asian community.
With heavy hearts, and with determination to continuously fight racism, xenophobia, white supremacy, and misogyny, and to advocate for systemic change, we strongly condemn the Atlanta spa shootings that killed eight individuals, six of them were women of Asian descent. This heinous and brutal act of violence has once again demonstrated the pervasive prevalence of hate and xenophobia, as well as racism and sexism, in our society. These fatal shootings also reiterate the continuation of anti-Asian racism that was highlighted at the start of the pandemic, and that has persisted throughout this difficult year.
We are here to support all students as they navigate a year like no other. We continue to support racialized students and to fight all forms of hate and racism on our campuses. We are saddened by the stories shared by many Asian students, of their experiences with racism, xenophobia, and not feeling safe on our campuses. We pledge to continue addressing racism in our educational institutions while also doing what we can to support Asian and other racialized and vulnerable student groups.
On Friday, February 5, 2021 the Newcomer Student Association (NSA) in collaboration with the Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) under the 2020-2021 Immigrant and Refugee Communities Neighbours, Friends and Families (IRCNFF) Campaign hosted the second session of its 3-part webinar series, Ending the Silence. The focus of this session was on Responsive Community Support and Resources for Gender-Based Violence. The session was moderated by Dr. Alka Kumar—Manager of Research and Policy at NSA. The three panelists included two NSA team members—Dr. Rahbari-Jawoko (Ryerson University Professor and Manager, Strategic Initiatives at NSA) and Jaspreet Kaur—(NSA Manager, Programs and Events, Newcomer Resilience Award recipient and research contributor toDomestic Violence in Immigrant Communities: Case Studiesproject) as well as Sidrah Ahmed-Chan, a public educator, researcher and writer with expertise in survivors of Islamophobic violence. The panelists drew from their professional and practice expertise and respectively commenced their presentations with discussion of the various ways intimate partner violence (IPV) generally manifests in a relationship and called attention to what is needed to mitigate challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and existing community capacity building tools and resources.
Dr. Rahbari-Jawoko shared YWCA Spokane-Power and Control Wheel and discussed how at the core of IPV is the various expression of power and control which is “Manifested in emotional, psychological, coercion and threats, intimidation and dominance; minimizing, denying and blaming; isolation; cultural spiritual; immigration status, and economic abuse.” The pandemic has added new and unprecedented ways for abusers to victimize, including misinformation; controlling access to medical services; putting victim’s health at risk by infecting or threatening to infect victim; removing/isolating children, extended family members, pets and friends; withholding necessary items such as hand sanitizers, cleaning products, protective masks, etc.; controlling and monitoring means of communication, and manipulating to gain access to the home.
She emphasized how:
“There are misconceptions about who are the victims of IPV, as the target can be anyone, often targeted for their strengths— namely putting the needs of others before their own; being faithful; trustworthy; forgiving; believe in abuser’s potential as human being, and loyal.”
The abusers are often narcissists who begin abusing in subtle ways. It’s important to know and recognize the ways a relationship becomes unhealthy and abusive. In unhealthy relationships, parties communicate in hurtful ways, there is mistreatment, accusations, and controlling dynamics. IPV is cyclical and consists of tension building, trigger, instance of abuse, excuse, honeymoon, then the routine restarts again. The abused party gets consumed by the exhausting repeating cycle of unpredictability and recovery. Abusive behaviours hardly change and the abuser always blames their victims for their abusive behaviours or actions.
Rates of domestic violence have increased by 20 to 30% across Canada. A Statistics Canada survey released in early April 2020 reported 1 in 10 women say they are “very or extremely” concerned about the possibility of violence in their homes due to the stress of confinement alone. Experts attribute these numbers, among other things, to the intersectional systemic issues rooted in social and economic factors such as increased poverty; lack of affordable housing; precarious and low-paying employment; lack of universal child care, and unequal access to technology and internet service. These factors have created a pressure-cooker environment exacerbated by social isolation, an inability to leave abusive situations due to lockdowns, and added fear or discomfort with following COVID protocols with their triggering effect reminiscent of controlling or abusive experience of survivors and lack of privacy.
The second presenter, Sidra Ahmed-Chan drew attention to the reality of GBV statistics against women, but stated that:
“Men and boys can as well be victims of abuse including childhood sexual abuse and other forms of trauma, physical violence and psychological abuse…. it can as well happen in same-sex relationships.”
According to police reported data the majority of GBV is men abusing women with eight in ten victims of intimate partner homicides committed in Canada are women being killed by men. She noted, “Everyone who’s here at this webinar today is a potential resource to a victim or survivor of GBV.” As when informed and aware of the nature of GBV you would be able to read between the lines and hear if someone is in need of help and will know how to connect that person with community resources. She shared numerous critical community resources such as Shelter Safe an organization which provides a Canada-wide map of shelters and transition houses.
She discussed key myths about GBV and explained how it manifests in controlling relationships through multiple examples such as having to take photos to prove where and with whom you have been with because your partner doesn’t believe you. She emphasized that the abuse does not occur just because someone is angry or stressed, there is “controlled loss of control” and use of power. She noted newcomers face the same rates of GBV as other communities though they often face unique barriers for accessing support and services as they are ill informed about available community resources, they are underemployed, face racism and stereotypes and there is a lack of culturally sensitive support services. The main take-away from Sidra’s presentation was the awareness raised about victim blaming—the you should have known, greater understanding of how power and control are exercised in a relationship and how such awareness may be used to recognize GBV and support those affected by it.
The third presenter Jaspreet Kaur commenced her presentation with an engaging activity ‘Which would you choose?’ The participants were given two scenarios to choose from —one depicting a healthy dynamic between a couple and one that was not. She shared a myriad of resources such as SNC—“See It, Name It and Check It.” She then explained the BLUE SKY Model—a compassionate and trauma informed model in support of individuals experiencing violence and could be used to create safer communities.
Kaur called for community members who know somebody living with abuse to speak to them in person, support them by sharing tasks to maximize support, advocate for victims and/or survivors while being respectful of their confidentiality. She added, there is much community support for individuals supporting survivors of GBV and there are a lot of people in the world advocating, researching, and working towards creating safer communities like you. She drew attention to examples of everyday actions, grassroots efforts by community organizations and advocacy groups that help support individuals experiencing abuse such as:
The graphic novel and the booklet were created with immigrants, refugees and people without status who had experienced GBV to share accurate and culturally relevant information. They are excellent resources to generate conversations within any community—available in English, Arabic, Armenian, Dari, Punjabi, Somali, Spanish, Tamil, Urdu, and Simplified Chinese. Whereas, “A Future Without Violence” is a tool kit to build newcomer resilience through community education and advocacy. Moreover, the resources help to provide practical ideas and guidelines for hosting community-based educational events service providers and advocates have identified as a best practice in addressing GBV. Kaur emphasized when helping immigrant women who are dealing with GBV, we must be vigilant of:
“Their previous experiences with seeking support prior to them immigrating to Canada, where they come from, their social location and other intersectional issues that may worsen their situation.”
She shared how to signal for help against violence by showing a palm to the camera or a person and “tuck thumb and then trap thumb” as shown.
She also shared #NOExcuseForAbuse one campaign which provides 4 Steps to help support individuals who are living with abuse during the COVID-19 pandemic.
“myPlan Canada” is a free downloadable mobile app or a website tool depending on what is safest for the GBV victim and or the survivor. She advised to set a PIN as it will load a neutral screen if someone tries to access the device it’s uploaded on. She noted for the users to answer the built-in questions within the app to tailor it to one’s specific needs. Kaur advised us to weigh priorities and understand personal risks of danger and options for safety and well-being. The app can provide information and resources that could be personalized to help one decide their best path forward.
We would like to leave the survivors of GBV with a profound Persian proverb and an empowering poem by Shel Silverstein:
“Write kindness in marble, injuries in dust.”
There is a voice inside of you
That whispers all day long,
“I feel that this is right for me,
I know that this is wrong.”
No teacher, preacher, parent, friend
Or wise man can decide
What’s right for you—just listen to
The voice that speaks inside.
Authors: Dr.Rahbari-Jawoko—Ryerson University Professor and Manager, Strategic Initiatives at NSA and Jaspreet Kaur—Manager, Programs and Events at NSA and GBD Researcher
To view the full virtual webinar, which includes a list of resources available for those dealing with gender-based violence, please watch the video below:
The Newcomer Students’ Association is thrilled to announce the Immigrant Women National Network (IWNN). We recognize the need to create a virtual community to support immigrant and refugee women, as they are one of the hardest hit groups during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many of these women have experienced mental health issues, social isolation, lack of social capital, gender-based violence, and unemployment. In fact, they are a group with one of the highest unemployment rates from May 2019 to May 2020, and one whose university education could not protect them from losing their jobs. They also face downward mobility and barriers to access resources and support systems. IWNN is a national network addressing issues and policies impacting the economic, social, and civic integration and engagement of immigrant and refugee women. Looking through an intersectional lens, the aim of this network is two-fold. First, It aims to create a platform and safe space for immigrant and refugee women to connect with one another, share their stories, and offer peer support and mentorship. Furthermore, the network was established with a mandate to provide and equip immigrant and refugee women with the tools, knowledge, resources and skills they need to reach their full potential and be contributing and active members of the society.
Second, the national network will act as a community of practice, bringing together experts, knowledge holders, and those with lived experience in immigration, displacement, resettlement and integration, to address issues, barriers, and challenges facing this community, as well as solutions to advance the inclusion of immigrant and refugee women in all aspects of the Canadian society.
We understand that these women face multiple intersecting barriers to settlement, integration, civic participation and career advancement. Through this network, we address and tackle issues related to social isolation, gender-based violence, mental health and wellbeing, civic engagement and leadership, as well as downward mobility for this segment. The objective of IWNN is not to provide short-term settlement solutions, but rather build strategies for long-term integration and advancement. The broader goal is to work towards sustainable inclusion and empowerment for immigrant, and refugee women in all aspects of Canadian society. The network aims to amplify the voices of immigrant and refugee women while transforming and empowering their experiences. IWNN hopes to do this through documenting the stories and lived experiences of immigrant and refugee women, as well as using storytelling as a tool of empowerment to challenge and disrupt the status quo. We envision the network conducting national advocacy campaigns and efforts to address the challenges facing this segment. We will advocate for fair representation of immigrant women in public office, in non-profit and corporations boards, and in the media.
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The panel discussion, Ending the Silence – A Double Pandemic: COVID-19 and Gender Based Violence (GBV) was a webinar jointly hosted by the Newcomer Students’ Association (NSA) and the Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI), on December 10, 2020. It was part of the annual international campaign on 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence, (starting on November 25, International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, and ending on December 10, on International Day of Human Rights). Moderated thoughtfully by Sara Asalya, founder of NSA, all three panelists—Cheyanne Ratnam, Salina Abji and Margarita Pintin-Perze—brought their powerful reflections to this discussion.
All panelists began by grounding themselves through sharing their migration beginnings as children of immigrants and refugees to Canada, going on to situate themselves in their professional work in relation to GBV. They noted inequities, as well as an absence of both culturally appropriate services, and of coordinated policy responses leading to systemic failures; and they highlighted the need for differentiated understanding of uniqueness and diversity within the immigrant experience. Cheyanne stated unequivocally that racism in Canada is not a remnant of the country’s colonial past, but is current and ongoing, and that she believes we are closer to the starting point rather than to the finish line when it comes to the prevalence of gender-based violence, be it in Ontario or nationally. Salina asked for states to be held accountable for providing resources, protection, and policy measures to support victims of DV and GBV. Margarita pointed to the continued dehumanization of women, asking who is labelled human, and who has the right to “be human.”
Panelists highlighted the false universality and rhetoric associated with the human rights discourse as these erasures, they claimed, of vulnerable cohorts of women, continue to happen when human rights are systematically denied to racialized, immigrant and refugees, non-status, and indigenous women. Where is the promise of ‘human rights’ then, they asked, and what needs to be in place so that metrics for contextualizing, implementing and measuring these can be realized?
We can’t talk about combating GBV here in Canada and within the immigrant and refugee community without acknowledging that there are thousands of Indigenous women, trans, and two-spirit people who are particularly vulnerable to violence because of historical and ongoing systemic sexism, racism, and trans/misogyny. How can we build a national advocacy movement to talk about GBV?
Panelists noted the complexities and dilemmas of combating GBV through building a national movement based in solidarity, and with humility, across differentiated experiences of women groups listed above. Particularly, the discussion problematized the need and concerns around establishing mutual and respectful alliances while centering the conversation on Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women (MMIW), holding space for these “different” stories of violence to build a Canadian story.
What can purposeful ally-ship, necessary for creating solidarity momentum, look like in this complicated scenario, one rooted in multiple histories and paradoxical narratives? How can immigrant and racialized women, being settlers ourselves, initiate such a coalition, and be there for our indigenous sisters? Given that shared understanding of gendered experience must simultaneously co-exist with differentiated forms of GBV in different communities, an equity (not equality) lens was one of the approaches suggested by panelists when thinking of a national movement, one tempered in equal part by accountability, compassion, and discomfort. The candour these passionate speakers brought forth in each of their responses, and the nuance with which they explored complex multiplicities not only in their own immigrant positionality, but also in the many approaches to understanding and addressing GBV, was a significant aspect of this dialogue.
For instance, to look with self-awareness at the Canadian dream of building a better life that immigrant families carried in their hearts as part of the migration trajectory (as all newcomers to Canada do); and while doing so, to also acknowledge and question one’s own place and complicity within the history of settler colonialism, is certainly a reflexive stance we must take. The immigrant story is so tied in with the narrative of nation-building in Canada—, one requiring of gratitude, especially from those seeking a safe haven here; but the real on-the- ground experiences of racism and microaggressions, sexism and exclusion faced by racialized groups, make them question, “Is this the Canada I signed up for?” What is at stake, and what is the backlash, when immigrants and refugees, racialized individuals and groups, are not adequately grateful for the refuge they received here?
The issue of gender-based violence has always been present in Canadian society, but the GBV crisis during COVID-19 is the new shadow pandemic, with an increase of 20-30 percent of gender-based violence and domestic violence cases since the start of COVID-19, and the number of domestic violence calls to helplines in some regions having increased by up to 400 percent. What do you think are the root causes behind such an alarming escalation in GBV at this time?
Proposing an intersectional approach, the panelists referred to the disproportionate negative impacts of COVID-19 on racialized women, discussing how the GBV crisis already raging pre-pandemic, further caused inequities and gendered violence to explode in racialized communities in the last few months, women being further left behind by social isolation, loss of critical supports and of employment, in many cases with added threats of deportation being used by partners and employers to further restrict their freedoms. In an environment where physical distancing becomes the norm, formal and informal resources to support women suddenly disappear; what could/should a safety plan for a woman faced with GBV look like? The solution framework, panelists suggested, must go into GBV work with a ‘differential’ approach and an `empathy’ lens, one that has at its center humility and respect for uniqueness. Victim blaming will not do, nor will theoretical insights that do not consider the entire experiential reality of a woman’s circumstances, including factors that often push her to continue staying in an abusive relationship.
In terms of safety strategies for women seeking escape from a difficult GBV situation, Cheyanne emphasized the significance of a preparedness plan, creating alternative, and covert, ways of sharing information, educating community members to be allies, playing the role of friend or listening ear, but without imposing one’s own ideology or pushing a point of view. Salina talked about system- level solutions, including listening well to grassroots migrant justice movements so that any post-COVID recovery is just, and that people do not have to negotiate between different harms; so that racialized community members can report without fear of impacting their immigrant status. Margarita suggested that GBV be understood and addressed as a social problem, needing a collaborative approach; centering and acknowledging individual experience, and a system- level metrics of support emerging from there. The bystander model was reiterated too, and following on that, the need to create safe spaces at an informal and grassroots level; making sure that structures, both formal and informal, can be created that center lived experience to ensure individuals impacted by GBV have a seat at the table so they can be the experts guiding appropriate solution-building rather than policy people making top-down unrealistic decisions on their behalf.
Part of the discussion were also questions relating to the role of the family unit and of socialization, with focus on elders and younger members of the family, to address issues of toxic masculinity in the home as issues like GBV can hardly be tackled with policy tools alone.
The magic potion of authenticity, self-reflexive courage and passion of lived experience that drove this insightful conversation was indeed one of the special treats in this pandemic year, we urge you to check out the recording of this event below and we hope to see you at our next webinar in February.
Authors:Alka Kumar is the manager of research and policy at the Newcomer Students’ Association.
Without comprehensive race-based data, equity policies within Canadian universities have limited impact in adequately addressing discrimination and racism.
As Canadian universities do not collect race-based data, 63 out of the 76 universities across the country are unable to provide a breakdown of their student populations due to absence of data collection,’ despite having diversity offices.
The open letter from the Ontario Human Rights Commission (OHRC), dated Dec. 18, 2020, castigating Ontario academic and educational institutions for failing to meet the needs of Black, Indigenous, and racialized students in these challenging times, is certainly bold and timely. The position of public censure OHRC has taken on through this statement speaks to our unusual times, and also to the high levels of systemic disarray our educational systems have fallen into.
The COVID pandemic has pushed us all abruptly into virtual spaces, has resulted in what has been coined as “COVID stress”—causing social isolation, adversely affecting our mental well-being, and exposing pre- existing fault lines rooted in systemic racism and pre-existing discrimination. As recent data has affirmed, the pandemic has exacerbated simmering inequities in multiple sectors, pushing marginalized and racialized communities further into precarity. This is especially true for Black, Indigenous, and racialized post-secondary students, who should have the necessary support as they navigate and face institutional and structural barriers and racism. The absence of such support has potential to negatively impact their identity construction, academic success, and sense of belonging, as well as ability to equally and fully participate in all aspects of the Canadian society.
The Newcomer Students’ Association has issued a statement in response to the OHRC letter. In this statement, the group indicated it has “heard multiple accounts of students experiencing racism, discrimination, and xenophobia within Ontario post-secondary institutions.”
The pandemic, however, is certainly not the first instance of the issue of institutional and systemic racism being problematized within Canada’s postsecondary institutions. For instance, a policy brief by Aisha Shibli from the Canadian Arab Institute in 2019 titled, “Dismantling Systemic Racism in Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions: Arab Students’ Experiences on Campus,” indicated that racism and discrimination are inherently embedded within the culture of Canadian universities. Shibli notes that “63 out of the 76 universities across the country are unable to provide a breakdown of their student populations due to absence of data collection, despite having diversity offices.” This is a key factor as to why existing equity policies within Canadian universities tend to have an inadequate impact in effectively mitigating and dealing with existing institutional discrimination and racism. And it supports existing evidence suggesting that by and large Canadian universities are not essentially meeting their instituted legal obligations and general commitments guided by their anti-discrimination policies as well as the broader national institutional standards.
Moreover, the existing systemic racism poses a barrier to hiring, advancement, retention, and full inclusion of racialized students, as well as employees within postsecondary institutions. A 2019 report by Universities Canada shows that, while the percentage of women in senior leadership positions is now almost proportionate to that of men, racialized people represent only eight percent of senior leaders and 21 percent of full-time faculty. Representation matters, for many reasons. For example, as the popular adage goes, “if you can see it, you can be it,” to other robust arguments that real inclusion and diversity are essential at all levels of an organization, as that can mean huge and paradigmatic changes in thinking, leadership, and structures.
As we devise a post-pandemic recovery plan, we need to move beyond just “talk” and into actionable and meaningful change that focuses on implementation—for instance, creating safe spaces for full engagement, designing robust reporting and case management procedures, and moving from performative equity, diversity, and inclusion policies to ensuring effective support and mentorship processes. Certainly, further evidence is needed when it comes to creating optimal strategies for success and resilience of racialized students within post-secondary education, to assist faculty and staff to improve their pedagogy, and support resources and programs. We’re in dire need for transparency and accountability in policies related to employment equity and inclusive hiring.
Authors:Alka Kumar is the manager of research and policy at the Newcomer Students’ Association. Mojgan Rahbari-Jawoko is an instructor at Ryerson University. Sara Asalya is the executive director of Newcomer Students’ Association.
This article was originally published by The Hill Times on January 4th, 2021.
The Newcomer Students Association (NSA)— a national grassroots organization working at the intersection of migration, education, and social justice, and a platform committed to promoting inclusion and equity for post-secondary newcomer, immigrant, and refugee students—we support and endorse the open letter issued by the Ontario Human Rights Commission (OHRC) on Dec 18, 2020. We endorse the criticism levelled in the OHRC statement and welcome the specific measures they recommend to protect the human rights of Black, Indigenous, and racialized students.
In this open letter that goes out to all Presidents and Principals of post-secondary educational institutions in Ontario, OHRC brings attention to media stories, social media posts, and communications received by them directly from students and student groups who have reported experiences of racism and fear, with an increase in acts that violate students’ human rights to access a safe educational environment. We at NSA, based on our relationships with the student community, have heard multiple accounts of students experiencing racism, discrimination, and xenophobia within Ontario post-secondary institutions. We have also learned about our student community’s frustration at the lack of institutional responses to these issues. These experiences are not new, but racism is ingrained in our society and institutions. It has surfaced more starkly during, and was exacerbated by, the COVID-19 pandemic. We know that the last few months of living with COVID-19, with reliance primarily on virtual platforms for learning and socializing, has led to racialized students feeling doubly isolated, marginalised and discriminated against. We acknowledge that sadly, there has been little recourse to much-needed institutional support to help students deal with the unique situations they are currently experiencing.
Notably, the OHRC letter highlights the serious nature of these concerns, pointing to the challenges experienced by racialized students as a sign of institutional failure. Such institutional failures have led to a lack of redressal of complaints in the absence of policy mechanisms to evaluate and prevent perpetration of future discriminatory acts. OHRC urges “directing minds” of universities to take positive action by instituting “transparent, accessible and formal structures to promote compliance with human rights law and principles, including comprehensive complaint mechanisms to foster a culture of human rights accountability.” While NSA is saddened by the racism and pervasive systemic challenges our racialized learning community is currently facing, we feel supported by the OHRC acknowledgement. We urge the academic community, all educational institutions, and other stakeholders to come together and take action to ensure that all learning and societal spaces are respectful, equitable, and free of any discrimination.